William Shakespeare

William Shakespeare  

William Shakespeare


William Shakespeare was a great English poet playwright and an actor, he was born on 26 April 1564, he was born in Stratford, a town in England and his father's name was John Shakespeare and his mother's name was Mary Shakespeare to William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was considered to be one of the greatest writers of the English language. Shrines and verses are written which are still very famous today. William Shakespeare is called the national poet of England. They had 3 children, William Shakespeare began a successful career as an actor writer and partner in London who is known by many names.
It is also called Lord Chamberlain Man and Kingsman. Plays, writings and verses composed and performed by William Shakespeare which are still famous today. Twentieth and 21st century poems, plays and writings composed by William Shakespeare are being rediscovered. Many of William Shakespeare's plays continue to be popular worldwide. Even today his plays are performed in various political and cultural contexts. William Shakespeare began a successful career in London between 1585 and 1592. He made his career here as an actor, writer and a company partner. He retired in 1663 at the age of 49, after which he died 3 years later, all the famous works that William Shakespeare did between 1589 and 1613 were mostly historical and the plays written by him were written by him. Has been translated into all live languages


William Shakespeare Life 


William Shakespeare Plays

William Shakespeare was born in Stratford upon-Avon, England. Born on 24 April 1557, William Shakespeare emerged as a great English poet, playwright and actor. His father's name was John Shakespeare. William Shakespeare's father was a successful glove-maker at Stratford. William Shakespeare was raised in the city of Stratford.

The date of birth of William Shakespeare is unknown because the records of such a year old do not exist, here we can only guess. But traditionally, his birthday is celebrated on 23 April.
William Shakespeare was born in the spring of 1564 to whom he was baptized in the Holy Trinity. On 26 April the church in the market town of Stratford-upon-Avon registered the name, with the Latin GU Yallis Philippe Johannes Shakespeare Elizabeth, and was baptized at birth. Three days later, Shakespeare was born on St. George Day.The year he was born, Stratford was killed by the terrible outbreak of the plague, thousands of people died in their brutal and painful deaths, the names of the dead are listed in these 16th century records which That Victor has written in margin Hick in Kipot. Here the pestis plague begins and you can see that we turn the page because the entries are July, August, September. Su comes more and more times in the month, by the end of the year its terrible month had passed, perhaps it was America in the sense that Shakespeare also lived in the place he did William, John's third child and first son and He had two older sisters, Mary Shakespeare, Shakespeare's child died in infancy, especially Oliver's child, which was the first family he had visited. School. His father had come from Stratford to a small village near Snitterfield, he was in a fairly farming family before coming here and when they were tied up he apparently made a living. John Shakespeare was a glove and leather work. Was a smart person to whom he made his life better by lending money, and Wool did his job of building a social ladder and finally Stratford Willi The mother went into high against Mary was a lively and intelligent woman in a field.Willem Kit was an important influence on the boy as a child Shakespeare led a disciplined life over the summer, waking up in the rural community between three and four o'clock at five o'clock.Shakespeare used to get his teeth cleaned. With a soft cloth and a sweet paste he will go downstairs and hope to receive his father's blessing approval, he may leave to help his father on Thursday's market otherwise he will spend several hours a day Will go to school John Shakespeare's position in the city meant that William was allowed to attend a local school.The Elizabethans took education seriously and the school day was long and the demand here was translated into English by Shakespeare in the text In Latin and English to English he must have read some of the great classics such as Ovid, great examples of metamorphosis. Programming was read which has clearly become one of his favorite books, which they had hoped indeed. Speak Latin since the age of about 8 and he would have been flat if he hadn't spoken in Latin. it was a school requirement that I think for his salutary hints as if a classical writer is a rather scary case that people actually Thinking of classical writers, Ovid is a very exciting writer who must have filled Shakespeare's mind with images of violence on the one hand and the Romans on the other.


William Shakespeare Biography



Plays of William Shakespeare


 Plays of William Shakespeare are universally acknowledged as timeless classics but his life is shrouded in mystery no playwright has ever found a wider audience for all the world is indeed a stage for William Shakespeare the bard as he's called is larger than life he wrote plays of such magnitude passion and comedy and drama that they continue today to enthrall audiences all over the world actors revere him and sing his praises audiences delight and his wonderful use of the english language Shakespeare explored all of man's vanities flaws passions desires he brought tragic heroes and overbearing buffoons to life so now biography takes a look at the life of William Shakespeare blow winds and crack your cheeks rage blow you cataracts and hurricanoes spout till you have drench'd ask William Shakespeare the greatest playwright the English language has ever known his plays his poetry his every word had become the very essence of our culture Shakespeare lives on today through the words of his plays 400 years on his genius has never been surpassed his drama takes the English language and runs with life's but a walking shadow a poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage and then is heard no more Shakespeare's writing shows an extraordinary level of insight into the human experience our innermost thoughts yet his own life remains an enigma shrouded in the mysteries and complexities of Elizabethan England William Shakespeare lived at a time of expansion conquest exploration and discovery England was a rising international power Queen Elizabeth the first reigned with a firm hand and a clear vision bringing England to the edge of glory it was a time of new pride in the nation and for perhaps the first time our pride in the English language England was ripe for the arrival of the genius of Shakespeare Shakespeare was born in the spring of 1564 he was baptised in Holy Trinity Church in the market town of stratford-upon-avon on the 26th of April the register records his name with the Latin GU Yalies Phileas Johannes Shakespeare Elizabeth and baptisms took place three days after birth so Shakespeare was born on st. George's Day [Music] the year he was born Stratford was struck by a terrible outbreak of plague people died in their thousands cruel and painful deaths the names of the dead are listed in these 16th century records the vicar has written in the margin hick in kippot pestis here begins the plague and you can see as we turn the page as the entries get more and more frequent throughout July August September terrible month by the end of the year the outbreak had passed away perhaps it's America in a sense that Shakespeare even who lived about the place he did William was the third child and first son of John and Mary Shakespeare his two elder sisters had died in infancy well Shakespeare the child Oliver quite well-to-do family particularly at the age in which he will have first gone to school his father had come to Stratford from snitterfield from a little village close by he'd been in a quite a substantial farming family before he came here and when he got strapped that he obviously made good John Shakespeare was a Glover and leather worker a shrewd man he improved his living by money lending and wool dealing making his way up the social ladder eventually becoming high bailiff of Stratford William's mother Mary was a lively and intelligent woman brought up on a farm at Wilm kit she was an important influence on the boy as a child Shakespeare led a very disciplined life in the summers you got up between three and four in a rural community in the winters at five o'clock Shakespeare would get up he would clean his teeth with a soft cloth and a sweet paste he would go downstairs and hope to get his father's blessing a sign of approval he might go off to help his father at the Thursday market otherwise he would go to school for quite a number of hours during the day John Shakespeare's position in the town meant William was allowed to go to the local school the Elizabethans took education seriously and the school day was long and demanding here Shakespeare translated text from English to Latin and Latin to English at that school he would have read some of the great classics the great Latin classics like Ovid for example he would have read of its metamorphosis which clearly became one of his favorite books he would have been expected actually to speak Latin from the age of about 8 and he would have been flat if he didn't speak in Latin this was a requirement of the school .



William Shakespeare


I suppose for our salvage signs like a classical author a rather dreary matter people think of classical authors in fact Ovid is a very exciting author who will have filled Shakespeare's mind with images of violence on the one hand and romance on the other Shakespeare's interest in the lives of the great Romans was reflected later in his life in the plays Julius Caesar Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus Shakespeare's first taste of the theatre was undoubtedly watching the traveling players who came to Stratford every year performing their plays and songs in any available Hall tavern or market when Shakespeare was a child there was a great Festival at nearby Kenilworth Castle it belonged to Robert Dudley the Earl of Leicester a suitor of the Virgin Queen Elizabeth Dudley arranged the festival in the hope of charming her with its amazing sights its plays music singing and dancing as an 11 year old boy at the time of the entertainment which was famous throughout the county notorious which people were flocking to I don't doubt that Shakespeare's father took him over to Kenilworth that he saw these events was aware of their immense appeal these childhood memories perhaps inspired him when he wrote his plays there is an episode in A Midsummer Night's Dream where Oberon seems to describe the sights of his splendid festival at the castle we know Shakespeare did not go to a university his family were badly off as his father's business dealings had gone from bad to worse but little else is known about his life at this time these early years have become known as the Lost years I think the most plausible explanation is that at the end of his school days he was withdrawn from school at the age of 14 or 15 and became an apprentice to his father in his father's Glover's business in Stratford [Music] only a mile away in the village of shot relived the woman who was to become with Shakespeare's wife anne hathaway and was eight years older than Shakespeare and fell pregnant with his child when he was only eighteen they hurriedly obtained a special license to marry dated November 28 1580 - six months before the child was born the church court the ecclesiastical court could have asked Shakespeare and his wife to apologize for their sexual activity before marriage by standing up in church in a white sheet and making a statement to the whole congregation this would have been difficult really not only for Shakespeare but for his father it would have been a slightly black mark against the family very little is known about his marriage to Anne Hathaway we do know that 10 years later Shakespeare was working in London there are hundreds of conflicting stories about what he was doing throughout his twenties some people think he might have been a soldier because the requital molten souls is in the place some people think he might have been a sailor because the plays include references to the sea some people think he may have traveled to Italy for example because there are a lot of Italian settings for his plays there is a fairly early legend that he spent that time as a schoolmaster in the country we do know he had three children his daughter Susanna had been born the summer after his wedding and two years later twins Hamnet and Judith were born William Shakespeare had a growing family but it seems these ties were not enough to keep him it's thought he began writing in Stratford perhaps some sonnets and during the 1580s he left home and headed for London and it was in the hustle and bustle of the new professional theatres that William Shakespeare was about to launch what was to be the most sensational playwriting career in the history of the English language by 1592 William Shakespeare was in London making his mark as an actor and writer he joined a group of actors in the new theatres and it turned to writing his first plays to Gentlemen of Verona and Henry the sixth he was a great success and a literary establishment took against him this startlingly talented young man Robert Greene who was dying of alcohol and a lot of other things in 1592 he produced a very bitter last pamphlet called his groups worth of wit bought with a million of repentence in which he attacked Shakespeare and a couple of other playwrights for being in effect parva newsmen there is an upstart crow beautified with our feathers that with his Tigers heart wrapped in a player's hide supposes he is as well able to bombast out of blank verse as the best of you and being an absolute your Hanna's factotum is in his own conceit the only shake scene in the country Greene attacked Shakespeare for being very tight with money for being a waspish little worm for being ungrateful egotistical mean minded he actually paraphrased a line from Henry the six part three about a tiger's heart wrapped in a woman's hide in which he talked about a tiger's heart wrapped in a player's hide Green's outburst is the first evidence we have of Shakespeare as a playwright it proves that by 1592 Shakespeare had already written the third part of Henry the sixth and was established as a playwright his career was going from strength to strength he was obviously a great success want to chase his first plays one that we we hardly ever take any notice of these days Henry the sixth part one produced tears from 10,000 spectators in the theater and with the success of his play that was the first sort of public credo the public advert of how effective Shakespeare's plays were Shakespeare's talent lay in his ability to write a vast range of material throughout the 1590s he wrote poems sonnets and plays the early comedies and the history plays he almost seems to set out to show that he can write a clever comedy did the comedy of errors based on a Roman play for example a lyrical comedy the Two Gentlemen of Verona based on an Italian novel a deeply serious gory tragedy Titus Andronicus full of references to the early history of Rome a very profoundly ambitious work for a young man and there are the English history plays the plays about Henry the sixth followed by Richard the third culminating in Richard the third now is the winter of our discontent made glorious summer by this son of York and all the clouds that lourd upon our house in the deep bosom of the ocean buried [Music] Shakespeare's success in the theatre dream to the attention of a number of great noblemen most importantly he was drawn into the circle of the Earl of Southampton in 1593 and 1594 he dedicated to poems Venus and Adonis and the rape of Lucretia to the Earl of Southampton the love I dedicate to your lordship is without end where of this pamphlet without beginning is but a superfluous moiety some of the most well-known and most beautiful love poetry in the English language is found in Shakespeare's sonnets much of it written by the poet to a young man perhaps the Earl of Southampton Southampton was his patron and some scholars say they were lovers shall I compare thee to a summers day and more temperate rough winds do shake the Darling Buds of May and summers lease hath all too short a date the Earl of Southampton undoubtedly would was what we would call today bisexual if not homosexual in his early youth he had plenty of lovely young men around and Shakespeare undoubtedly was dazzled by the exterior of this beautiful young man sonnets or elaborate exercises in the technical skills of writing poetry they are artifice but of all Shakespeare's work we can perhaps come closest to the man in the sonnets there's a sort of story behind the son it's the story of the poet's affection for it might not be too much to say infatuation with a young man a man younger than himself deep affection could even be a love affair between the two men there is a rival poet as the suggestions another poet is a rival for the affections of the of the young man and then in the last group of sonnets as they were eventually printed there is a woman who was always known as the dark lady my mistress's eyes are nothing like the Sun coral is far more red than her lips red [Music] the sonnets - and about the dark lady portray an obsessive love a love which the poet despises himself at times for feeling an entanglement and emotional entanglement that he'd really rather in many ways be out of a sort of state of intense intimate emotional unhappiness I have seen roses damn esct red and white but no such roses see I in her cheeks and in some perfumes is there more delight than in the breath that from my mistress reeks the beautiful young man and the dark woman are both resented they're both considered treacherous and duplicitous she is a bay where all men ride ugly and dreadful and I only regrets as it were says the sonnet speaker that I'm attached to her we I can't break off my relationship now the young man is supposed to be very beautiful and very consoling but he too proves to be fickle so Shakespeare is raging through the speaker at people whom he apparently likes and that's rather disturbing but it was the theater that called him back again and again demanding more and better scripts each time his plays were popular successful and above all commercial Shakespeare had to be better than the best of them the theater was very greedy for scripts at that date we have evidence of theater proprietors actually knocking on the doors of playwrights saying is the script finished yet and clearly Shakespeare will have been sensitive to that kind of pressure and the 37 plays that he produced in the well was at 20 years that he was in London is quite a lot of plays while living in London Shakespeare very much kept himself to himself he worked hard rehearsing in the mornings and performing in the afternoons he had to write in the evenings and that meant huge costs not only in paper which itself was a hugely expensive item but also in candles and tapers and lanterns and things too to be able to see to ride by I have a theory actually spent most of his time in Elizabethan pub's because there you got automatic light along with the meal that you had an evening it would certainly been cheaper for him to work in a pub than it would have been to work in his lodgings Shakespeare was living away from the family they were growing up in stratford-upon-avon without him he was writing new plays Love's Labour's Lost Romeo and Juliet and a Midsummer Night's Dream there's an actor and a member of the Acting Company he had to be on call every day of the week throughout the period of acting and the only realistic time to ride up to Stratford which would have taken two three days from London anyway would have been through the 40 days of Lent when acting was officially banned [Music] perhaps Shakespeare's marriage was indeed loveless there are not many happy marriages in his plays in Twelfth Night his character Orsino gives this advice don't marry an older woman let's still the woman take an elder than herself so where's she to him so sway she level in her husband's heart let thy love be younger than thyself or thy affection cannot hold the bent for women are as roses whose fair flower being once displayed doth fall that very hour [Music] throughout the 1590s London was threatened by several serious outbreaks of the plague at its height it was killing a thousand people a week if you show the symptoms you stood a 70% chance of dying those who could fled the city and the theaters were closed [Music] shakespeare's new playwriting career was repeatedly halted by these devastating outbreaks of plague the Queen's government and the city together are could decide to close down the theaters for any length of time because of a plague alert that is if the number of deaths in London from plague plague was always more or less present but if it reached a certain number maybe twenty or thirty deaths a week that the theaters could be closed thomas dekker a writer of the day described this terrible disease that swept through London a stiff and freezing horror sucks up the rivers of my blood my hair stands on end with the panting of my brains mine eyeballs are ready to start out being beaten with the billows of my tears out of my weeping pen does the ink mournfully and more bitterly than gold drop on the pale-faced paper even when I do but think of the bowels of my sick country have been torn out a fascination with death resonates throughout Shakespeare's plays the tombs of Romeo and Juliet the bones of the charnel-house the graveyard in Hamlet Shakespeare's darkest fears were about to be realized in the summer of 1596 back home in Stratford Shakespeare's family was stricken with grief that August a disaster struck and that the cruelest thing happened to Shakespeare imaginable the very worst thing the most terrible event of his married life this register records the burial of Hamlet Shakespeare's only son Hamlet phileas William Shakespeare Hamlet son of William Shakespeare 11th of August 1596 aged 11 what this meant was that there would be no male Shakespeare to inherit Shakespeare's wealth the family would die out whatever Shakespeare did no matter how much money he he earned how much land he acquired it would all be dissipated grief fills the room up of my absent child lies in his bed walks up and down with me puts on it pretty looks repeats his words remembers me of all his gracious parts stuffs out his vacant gowns with his form towards the end of the 1590s Shakespeare began to write plays of a greater depth it seemed to reflect the experiences of his life the death of his son Hamnet is interesting when you think he wrote a great great play called Hamlet and he loved Hamlet passionately clearly did it comes through every life was fascinated to be or not to be that is the question whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune or to take arms against a sea of troubles and by opposing and [Music] Shakespeare's troubles were not yet over the actors could not renew the lease in the land with her London theatres stood [Music] the city fathers had objected to this popular new form of entertainment they saw theaters as ungodly and immoral undaunted Shakespeare's troupe tore down the old theater and transported it plank by plank south across the River Thames and built a new theater amongst the bear-baiting gambling houses and brothels of Southwark [Music] this was to be the new Globe Theater it was one of the most splendid theaters of the day he was part owned by William Shakespeare his 10% share was valuable and made him his fortune [Music] the theater company won great acclaim the first play performed at the globe was Shakespeare's Julius Caesar he was writing for a fit without scenery with very simple costumes under open light and so he had to use the one tool he had which was language which ship which is his words to create the world so there are a lot of there's a lot of visual imagery in his language there's a lot of character detail in the language there are a lot of stage directions in the language the audience had to be persuaded in language into imagining themselves into the situation they're in you've got that at the very beginning of Hamlet for instance where you're told in the first six lines of the play that it's past midnight and it's bitter cold and that was something people were told middle of the afternoon in broad daylight Shakespeare's audiences relied on their imaginations during every performance the simple stage reverberated only with Shakespeare's words all the women's parts were played by men the the great heroic women were played by adult men by very experienced adult male actors the sort of girls parts and that includes a part like Juliet in Romeo and Juliet would be played by a boy whose voice had not yet broken there isn't a great deal of evidence about what part Shakespeare played and whatever they were they were pretty certainly not major ones there is a sonnet that praises him playing kingly parts which is understandable and one of the kingly parts that he almost certainly did play was the ghost of Hamlet's father a nice role the ghost that instigates the hot story I am my father's spirit doomed for a certain term to walk the night and for the day confined to fast in fires till the foul crimes done in my days of nature are burnt and purged away and it was his experience as an actor that added so much to his skill as a playwright he brings an actor's sensibility and he brings an actor's common sense he brings an actor's skill to the duration of of character interesting he called himself a poet of course that's how he described himself not a playwright not a natural poet and we should probably never forget that that actually there is something in the distillation of language the condensation of experience into words that the poet can do unlike anybody else Shakespeare's words written at this time of great linguistic invention transformed the English language forever the subjects of his plays however were taken from many different sources even from existing players like most Elizabethans shakespeare derived most of his stories on the whole he didn't invent them Bernard Shaw praised Shakespeare's genius for telling the story provided somebody else had told it to him first that was a characteristic bit of shadyan wit but there's a lot of truth in that almost all of Shakespeare's plays are based either on history or on ready written fictions Richard the third was a popular villain and Henry the fifth was a popular hero so that one more play about both of them would go down very well particularly with this freshness that Shakespeare's adding to it another version of Hamlet will be delightful but by the 1600s something was beginning to happen to his work Shakespeare was becoming a better and better observer of life it was writing more profound and more disturbing plays he the extraordinary tragedy of Hamlet and his powers as a dramatist were now so developed he was about to create some of the greatest dramas that have ever been written [Music] in 1603 King James the first was crowned king of England Shakespeare's players became the King's Men actors to the court and the King Shakespeare was the leading dramatist of the time his family had been granted a coat of arms several years before and he was now a gentleman these last years were perhaps the greatest of his playwriting career between 1604 and 1607 Shakespeare wrote the tragedies of fellow Macbeth and King Lear Shakespeare's tragedies are somehow close to the very center of his work and so they must have been close to the center of his imagination clearly the the violence of the plays the attention the sense of personalities that one gets in the tragedies must have had a distinct appeal for Shakespeare there must have been something within Shakespeare that was urging him on to write in this way that it's part of an interior journey a development of the soul if you like to use a rather old-fashioned phrase the deep interest in human psychology which in evidence for example in Othello with the very vivid and intensely felt portrayal of Othello's jealousy or the tragedy of Lear with the tragedy of an old man reluctant to give up you see me here you Gaza full of grief as age ratcheted both of it be you to these daughters odds against their father fool me not so much to parent tamely touch me with Lobo anger let not women's weapons water drop stained by man's cheeks have such revenge's on you books that all the world you don't write a play of the depth of the profundity and significance of King Lear just because somebody says it's time you wrote a serious tragedy old man you write it because you've been meditating for rather a long time rather deeply on the issues that a play like that raises to the surface he shows us people of sustained rage very unusually King Lear would be an obvious example but what about gentle Prince Hamlet Hamlet rages through the whole play so the writer of these plays was a man who understood anger very well the tragedies give us a tantalizing glimpse into Shakespeare's character his innermost thoughts and deepest emotions he's writing scenes which reflect human situations take Hamlet for example the morning for Ophelia Hamlet's mourning over Ophelia the plays are full of things which go on speaking to people as long as human beings are human beings and have sufferings and longings in middle age Shakespeare became more and more concerned with his relationship with his daughters time and time again throughout his later plays he presents us with a father who is preoccupied with his daughters in Pericles Cymbeline The Winter's Tale and The Tempest one may turn to perhaps the greatest tragedy ever written and are the most most affecting moving terrible work of the Jacobean era which is King Lear the whole tragedy begins doesn't it with difficulties with the daughter and here we've had this tremendously moving ending when Blair finally recognizes Cordelia's worth I know where I did large loss do not laugh at me but I am up [Music] this lady to be my child [Music] what [Music] perhaps in the last play he wrote alone The Tempest we can see the clearest picture of Shakespeare in his final years in the character of Prospero Prospero puts on a mask and entertainment in the course of the play and you can draw a parallel between Prospero as the creator of that mask and Shakespeare as the creator of dramatic entertainments but above all Prospero is a character who has magical power but he's also somebody who gives up his magic at the end of the play he says he'll burn his books and he returns to being an ordinary person again our revels now are ended these are actors as I foretold you were all spirits and are melted into air into thin air and like the baseless fabric of this vision the cloud-capped towers the gorgeous palaces the solemn temples the great globe itself yea all which it inherit shall dissolve and like this insubstantial pageant faded leave not a rack behind we are such stuff as dreams are made on and our little life is rounded with a sleep in the summer of 1613 the globe was destroyed it burned to the ground during a performance of Henry the eighth leaving nothing behind a new globe theater was built but without William Shakespeare the fire marked the end of his career and he retired to Stratford [Music] William Shakespeare retired a wealthy man he was a gentleman a businessman and a landowner he owned the second largest house in Stratford and was respected figure in the town the desperate struggles of his days as an actor in the red-light districts of London were forgotten but still he had no son no male heir to inherit his fortune his will is an angry document it's in two parts showing a tremendous amount of worry over what what is to happen after his death Shakespeare had made out one version of his will apparently early in 1616 he made out a very different version later not long before he died empowering Susanna his older daughter and Susanna's husband John Hall who was a physician and really leaving no power to either Judith or to Shakespeare's own wife this bitter rift in his family life is perhaps shown by the big quest to his wife Anne of the second best bed in their Stratford home it seems curiously offhand it seems somehow to a man so sensitive to the use of words a man whose occupation was in using words to use the phrase with I think without excuse without apology might leave to my wife my second best bed seemed somehow to suggest that maybe the pair although reasonably well matched in terms of social status and so on may not have been emotionally very close over the period of their marriage one night after a drinking session with his old theatre friends the story is written down that Shakespeare ate too many pickled herrings and drank too much wine he caught a fever and fell sick he died on his birthday and was buried on the 25th of April 1616 aged 52 perhaps some of the last words he wrote were his own epitaph good friend for Jesus sake forbear to dig the dust enclose it here blessed be the man that spares these stones and cursed be he that moves my bones William Shakespeare died without seeing his plays officially published odd quarters had appeared during his lifetime some scribbled down hurriedly and inaccurately during performances his plays were brought together for the first time in 1623 seven years after his death carefully gathered by his fellow actors and Friends Ben Jonson a man who had been his severus critic greatest rival and good friend was instrumental in putting together the folio it was filled with verses written as tributes to Shakespeare it is perhaps the greatest gift ever bestowed on the English language Jonson describes him as gentle Shakespeare and sweet swan of Avon these verses in the folio pay tribute to Shakespeare and the greatest of them is the poem by Ben Jonson in praise of Shakespeare in which he has the famous phrase he was not of an age but for all time it's an eloquent tribute from one artist to another to the memory of my beloved the author master William Shakespeare and what he have left us while I confess thy writings to be such as neither man nor Muse can praise too much soul of the age the applause delights the wonder of our stage thou art a monument without a tool and art alive still while thy book does live and we have which to read and praise to give without these efforts we might never have known William Shakespeare's plays eighteen out of the 36 plays gathered in the folio had never been published these plays including Macbeth Twelfth Night and The Tempest might have been lost forever in 1899 the first film version of a Shakespeare play was made starring Herbert bierbaum tree as King John since then countless movies and television films of his plays had been made and shown throughout the world in every continent his plays are performed in the best theaters to packed houses for an actor the highest accolade is to perform the great Shakespearean heroes Richard Burton Elizabeth Taylor Laurence Olivier Orson Welles Sir John Gielgud Kenneth Branagh the very greatest of them have all played Shakespeare [Music] after whatever it is 400 years Shakespeare still has the power to transform people's lives I've sat in performances in straps upon it and I've watched hundreds and hundreds of shows of a shirt from the back of the stalls and you can sometimes witness something happening in the theater which is very profound and clearly the stories the words of Shakespeare affect people in a way that no other playwright can do written for the simplicity of the Elizabethan stage Shakespeare's plays have taken on a life and influenced way beyond their original intention the constant renewal of Shakespeare the way in which in new ways of staging him are always being invented is actually one of the reasons why we have to say he is the greatest playwright his plays are more fertile they actually generate more exciting ways of doing it and exciting things and indeed exciting ideas than any other play and this is this is the ultimate testimony some achieve greatness remember who commended I yellowstone and wish to see the ever go to that what made it our desire is to be some i made not let me see the as servant still Shakespeare is a supreme manipulator of language his themes interweave the major and minor the universal in the particular he writes about love death happiness sorrow jealousy hate crossing all international boundaries he is a poet but more than that he is a storyteller a raconteur a dramatist Shakespeare is inescapable he's in the air around us even though we may not be conscious of he's in the water supply as it were to die to see to sleep perchance to dream aye there's the rub for in that sleep of death what dreams may come when we have shuffled off this mortal coil must give us pause William Shakespeare remains the very greatest enduring for all time his writing is his legacy to the world [Music] [Music] [Music] 

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